Các loại Câu điều kiện (Conditional sentences) trong tiếng Anh

Các loại Câu điều kiện (Conditional sentences) trong tiếng Anh

Câu điều kiện (Conditional sentences) tuy là một điểm ngữ pháp quan trọng nhưng không phải ai cũng nắm rõ và hiểu được cấu trúc này. Bài viết sau UNI Academy sẽ chia sẻ đến các bạn đầy đủ công thức, cách dùng phân biệt cho từng câu điều kiện cùng với bài tập để các bạn rèn luyện nắm chắc kiến thức lý thuyết câu điều kiện.

1. Type 1: Điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai

If clauseMain clause
If + S + V1 / V s(es)S + will / can/ may + V1

Ex: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.

If Mary doesn’t feel better tomorrow, she will see a doctor
If Mary doesn’t feel better tomorrow, she will see a doctor

   If Mary doesn’t feel better tomorrow, she will see a doctor.

2. Type 2: Điều kiện không có thật ở hiện tại

If clauseMain clause
If + S + V-ed / V2S + would / could / should + V1

Ex: If I were you, I would tell the truth.

   If she knew your address, she would send you a letter.

3. Type 3: Điều kiện không có thật trong quá khứ

If clauseMain clause
If + S + had + P.PS + would / could / should + have + P.P

Ex: If I had known the answer, I would have told her.

   I would have gotten the scholarship if I had studied harder.

4. Những cách khác để diễn đạt câu điều kiện

4.1. Unless = If ….not

              If you don’t work hard, you can’t earn enough money for your living.

         = Unless you work hard, you can’t earn enough money for your living.

4.2. Suppose / Supposing (giả sử như), in case (trong trường hợp), even if (ngay cả khi, cho dù), as long as, so long as, provided (that), on condition (that) (miễn là, với điều kiện là)

          Suppose the news is true, what will you do?

          I’ll change my decision provided that you accept my offer.

          In case I forget, please remind me of my promise.

4.3. Without: không có

         Without water, life wouldn’t exist.

       = If there were no water, life wouldn’t exist.

Note:

1. Có thể diễn tả câu điều kiện mà không cần dùng if hay unless bằng cách đảo chủ ngữ ra sau should, were, had. (Không được làm với các động từ khác)

  • Were I rich, I would help you. => If I were rich, I would help you.
  • Had I known her, I would have made friends with her. => If I had known her, I would have made friends with her.
  • Should you run into Peter, tell him to call me. => If you should run into Peter, tell him to call me.

2. Có thể kết hợp điều kiện 2 và điều kiện 3 trong một câu.

  • If I hadn’t stayed up late last night, I wouldn’t be so tired now.

3. Đôi khi thì hiện tại đơn được dùng cho cả hai mệnh đề của câu điều kiện để diễn tả một sự thật hiển nhiên; nó được gọi là zero conditional.

  • If we don’t water these flowers, they die.

4. Mệnh đề chính trong câu điều kiện loại 1 có thể là một câu đề nghị hoặc lời mời.

  • If you see Peter at the meeting, please tell him to return my book.
  • If you are free now, have a cup of coffee with me.

5. Đổi từ If sang Unless

IFUnless
Khẳng địnhKhẳng định (động từ trong mệnh đề chính đổi sang phủ định)
Phủ địnhKhẳng định (mệnh đề chính không thay đổi)

Ex:

  • If we had more rain, our crops would grow faster.  → Unless we had more rain, our crops wouldn’t grow faster.
  •   If she doesn’t work harder, she will fail the exam. → Unless she works harder, she will fail the exam.

6. Dạng câu: Mệnh lệnh + or + Clause

– If you don’t + V1, Clause

– If you aren’t + …, Clause

Ex:

  • Go away or I will call the police.  →   If you don’t go away, I will call the police.
If you don’t go away, I will call the police.
If you don’t go away, I will call the police.
  • Be careful or you will cut yourself. →  If you aren’t careful, you will cut yourself. 

7. Bài tập

Practice 1: Điền dạng đúng của từ trong ngoặc với câu điều kiện loại 1
  1. If I ——— (study), I ——— (pass) the exams.
  2. If the sun ——— (shine), we ——— (walk) into town.
  3. If he ——— (have) a temperature, he ——— (see) the doctor.
  4. If my friends ——— (come), I ——— (be) very happy.
  5. If she ——— (earn) a lot of money, she ——— (fly) to New York.
  6. If we ——— (travel) to Hanoi, we ——— (visit) the museums.
  7. If you ——— (wear) sandals in the mountains, you ——— (slip) on the rocks.
  8. If Giang ——— (forget) her homework, the teacher ——— (give) her a low mark.
  9. If they ——— (go) to the disco, they ——— (listen) to loud music.
  10. If you ——— (wait) a minute, I ——— (ask) my parents.
Practice 2: Điền dạng đúng của từ trong ngoặc với câu điều kiện loại 2
  1. If I ——— (come) home earlier, I ——— (prepare) dinner.
  2. If we ——— (live) in HCMC, my boyfriend ——— (visit) us.
  3. If Tung and Thanh ——— (be) older, they ——— (play) in our football team.
  4. If he ——— (be) my friend, I ——— (invite) him to my birthday party.
  5. If Xuan ——— (study) harder, she ——— (be) better at school.
  6. If they ——— (have) enough money, they ——— (buy) a new car.
  7. If you ——— (do) a paper round, you ——— (earn) a little extra money.
  8. If Minh ——— (get) more pocket money, he ——— (ask) Lam out for dinner.
  9. If we ——— (win) the lottery, we ——— (fly) to London.
  10. If I ——— (meet) Brad Pitt, I ——— (ask) for his autograph.
Practice 3: Điền dạng đúng của từ trong ngoặc với câu điều kiện loại 3
  1. If the weather ——— (be) nice, they ——— (play) football.
  2. If we ——— (go) to a good restaurant, we ——— (have) a better dinner.
  3. If An ——— (learn) more words, he ——— (write) a good report.
  4. If the boys ——— (take) the bus to school, they ——— (arrive) on time.
  5. If the teacher ——— (explain) the homework, I ——— (do) it.
  6. If they ——— (wait) for another 10 minutes, they (see) the pop star.
  7. If the police ——— (come) earlier, they ——— (arrest) the burglar.
  8. If you ——— (buy) fresh green vegetables, your salad ——— (taste) better.
  9. If Alex ——— (ask) me, I ——— (email) the documents.
  10. If he ——— (speak) more slowly, Peggy ——— (understand) him.
Practice 4: Điền dạng đúng của từ trong ngoặc
  1. If we meet at 9:30, we ——— (have) plenty of time.
  2. Lisa would find the milk if she ——— (look) in the fridge.
  3. The zookeeper would have punished her with a fine if she ——— (feed) the animals.
  4. If you spoke louder, your classmates (understand) you.
  5. Dan ——— (arrive) safe if he drove slowly.
  6. You ——— (have) no trouble at school if you had done your homework.
  7. If you ——— (swim) in this lake, you’ll shiver from the cold.
  8. The door will unlock if you ——— (press) the green button.
  9. If Mel ——— (ask) her teacher, he’d have answered her questions.
  10. I ——— (call) the office if I ——— (be) you.
  11. If they ——— (listen) carefully, they might hear the woodpecker.
  12. If I had lain down on the sofa, I ——— (fall) asleep.
  13. Ngoc could have worked as a model if she ——— (be) taller.
  14. The soil ——— (not/dry out) if you water the plants regularly.
  15. If you ——— (give) the young boy this stick, he’d hurt himself.
  16. We ——— (not/take) the wrong tram if Dzung had asked the policewoman.
  17. If the cat hides in the tree, the dog ——— (not/find) it.
  18. The students would have solved the problem if they ——— (use) their textbooks.
  19. If he washed his feet more often, his girlfriend ——— (visit) him more often.
  20. Manh ——— (read) the newspaper if he went by train.

Đáp án

Practice 1
  1. study/will pass
  2. shines/will walk
  3. has/must see
  4. come/will be
  5. earns/will fly
  6. travel/will visit
  7. wear/may slip
  8. forgets/will give
  9. go/have to
  10. wait/will ask
Practice 2
  1. came/would prepare
  2. lived/would visit
  3. were/would play
  4. were/would invite
  5. studied/would be
  6. had/could buy
  7. did/could earn
  8. got/could ask
  9. won/would fly
  10. met/would ask
Practice 3
  1. had been/could have played
  2. had gone/would have had
  3. had learnt/could have written
  4. had taken/could have arrived
  5. had explained/could have done
  6. had waited/might have seen
  7. had come/could have arrested
  8. had bought/would have tasted
  9. had asked/would have emailed
  10. had asked/could have understood
Practice 4
  1. will have
  2. looked
  3. had fed
  4. could understand
  5. would arrive
  6. would have had
  7. swim
  8. press
  9. had asked
  10. would call/were
  11. listened
  12. could have fallen
  13. had been
  14. won’t dry out
  15. gave
  16. wouldn’t have taken
  17. won’t find
  18. had used
  19. would visit
  20. would read

Trên đây là toàn bộ đầy đủ kiến thức về câu điều kiện trong tiếng Anh, các bạn hãy học tập thật kỹ để nắm chắc về câu điều kiện nhé!

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