Câu gián tiếp (Reported speech) trong tiếng Anh

Câu gián tiếp (Reported speech) trong tiếng Anh

Câu gián tiếp trong tiếng anh là một trong những kiến thức ngữ pháp cơ bản mà bất kỳ người học tiếng Anh nào cũng nên nắm được. Bài viết sau tổng hợp tất cả những kiến thức cơ bản về câu gián tiếp. Hãy cùng tìm hiểu nhé!

1. Định nghĩa

  • Lời nói gián tiếp – câu tường thuật (indirect speech): Là thuật lại lời nói của một người khác dưới dạng gián tiếp, không dùng dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: Duyen said, “I want to go home.” -> Duyen said she wanted to go home là câu gián tiếp (indirect speech)

Ví dụ câu gián tiếp

2. Cách chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp

3 bước để chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang câu tường thuật:

  • Bước 1: Đổi đại từ 
  • Bước 2: Lùi thì
  • Bước 3: Biến đổi trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn

Bước 1: Đổi đại từ

Đại từ chủ ngữCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
IHe/She
YouI/We/They
WeWe/They
Đại từ chỉ địnhCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
mehim/her
youme/us/them
usus/them
Tính từ sở hữuCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
myhis/her
yourmy/our/their
ownour/their
Đại từ sở hữuCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
minehis/hers
yoursmine/ ours/ theirs
oursours/ theirs
Tính từ chỉ địnhCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
Thisthe/that
Thesethe/those

Bước 2: Lùi thì

Câu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
Hiện tại đơn-> Quá khứ đơn
Hiện tại tiếp diễn-> Quá khứ tiếp diễn
Hiện tại hoàn thành-> Quá khứ hoàn thành
Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn-> Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
Quá khứ đơn-> Quá khứ hoàn thành
Quá khứ tiếp diễn-> Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
Câu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
CanCould
CouldCould
WillWould
WouldWould
MightMight
MustMust
MayMight
ShallWould
ShouldShould

Một số trường hợp sau đây không được lùi thì:

  • Nói về chân lý, sự thật;
  • Thì quá khứ hoàn thành;
  • Trong câu có năm xác định;
  • Các câu có cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF loại 2, 3.

Bước 3: Biến đổi trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn

Trạng từ chỉ thời gianCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
NowThen
TodayThat day
YesterdayThe day before The previous day
TomorrowThe next day
Next day/week/monthThe following day/week/month
Last day/week/monthThe day/week/month before
agobefore
Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốnCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
HereThere
TheseThose
ThisThat
ThatThat
ThìCâu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
present simpleI like ice creamShe said (that) she liked ice cream.
present continuousI am living in LondonShe said (that) she was living in London.
past simpleI bought a carShe said (that) she had bought a car OR She said (that) she bought a car.
past continuousI was walking along the streetShe said (that) she had been walking along the street.
present perfectI haven’t seen JulieShe said (that) she hadn’t seen Julie.
past perfect*I had taken English lessons beforeShe said (that) she had taken English lessons before.
willI’ll see you laterShe said (that) she would see me later.
would*I would help, but..”She said (that) she would help but…
canI can speak perfect EnglishShe said (that) she could speak perfect English.
could*I could swim when I was fourShe said (that) she could swim when she was four.
shallI shall come laterShe said (that) she would come later.
should*I should call my motherShe said (that) she should call her mother
might*I might be lateShe said (that) she might be late
mustI must study at the weekendShe said (that) she must study at the weekend OR She said she had to study at the weekend

3. Các bước chuyển câu trực tiếp thành câu gián tiếp ở dạng câu kể/tường thuật – Đổi câu trần thuật

Khi biến đổi câu trần thuật từ trực tiếp sang gián tiếp, chúng ta sử dụng các động từ tường thuật: say (that), tell sb (that).

​Thực hiện các biến đổi cần thiết về đại từ, tân ngữ, tính từ sở hữu,…và lùi thì nếu động từ tường thuật chia ở thì quá khứ.

S + said /said to sb that/ told sb that + Clause

​Ví dụ:

  • ​“I am going to buy this house next month”, she said.
  • ​She said that she was going to buy that house the following month.
​She said that she was going to buy that house the following month
​She said that she was going to buy that house the following month

4. Bài tập

Bài 1: Hoàn thành các câu sau.

1. “Where is my umbrella?” she asked.

She asked……………………………………… ………………….

2. “How are you?” Martin asked us.

Martin asked us………………………………………… ……………….

3. He asked, “Do I have to do it?”

He asked……………………………………… ………………….

4. “Where have you been?” the mother asked her daughter.

The mother asked her daughter…………………………………… …………………….

5. “Which dress do you like best?” she asked her boyfriend.

She asked her boyfriend………………………………….. ……………………..

6. “What are they doing?” she asked.

She wanted to know………………………………………. …………………

7. “Are you going to the cinema?” he asked me.

He wanted to know………………………………………. …………………

8. The teacher asked, “Who speaks English?”

The teacher wanted to know………………………………………. …………………

9. “How do you know that?” she asked me.

She asked me………………………………………… ……………….

10. “Has Caron talked to Kevin?” my friend asked me.

My friend asked me………………………………………… ……………….

11. “What’s the time?” he asked.

→ He wanted to know ………………………………………….. .

12. “When will we meet again?” she asked me.

→ She asked me ………………………………………….. .

13. “Are you crazy?” she asked him.

→ She asked him ………………………………………….. .

14. “Where did they live?” he asked.

→ He wanted to know ………………………………………….. .

15. “Will you be at the party?” he asked her.

→ He asked her ………………………………………….. .

16. “Can you meet me at the station?” she asked me.

→ She asked me ………………………………………….. .

17. “Who knows the answer?” the teacher asked.

→ The teacher wanted to know ………………………………………….. .

18. “Why don’t you help me?” she asked him.

→ She wanted to know ………………………………………….. .

19. “Did you see that car?” he asked me.

→ He asked me ………………………………………….. .

20. “Have you tidied up your room?” the mother asked the twins.

→ The mother asked the twins ………………………………………….. 

21. “Stop talking, Joe,” the teacher said.

→ The teacher told Joe ………………………………………….. .

22. “Be patient,” she said to him.

→ She told him ………………………………………….. .

23. “Go to your room,” her father said to her.

→ Her father told her ………………………………………….. .

24. “Hurry up,” she said to us.

→ She told us ………………………………………….. .

25. “Give me the key,” he told her.

→ He asked her ………………………………………….. .

26. “Play it again, Sam,” she said.

→ She asked Sam ………………………………………….. .

27. “Sit down, Caron,” he said.

→ He asked Caron ………………………………………….. .

28. “Fill in the form, Sir,” the receptionist said.

→ The receptionist asked the guest ………………………………………….. .

29. “Take off your shoes,” she told us.

→ She told us ………………………………………….. .

30. “Mind your own business,” she told him.

→ She told him ………………………………………….. .

31. “Don’t touch it,” she said to him.

→ She told him ………………………………………….. .

32. “Don’t do that again,” he said to me.

→ He told me ………………………………………….. .

33. “Don’t talk to me like that,” he said.

→ He told her ………………………………………….. .

34. “Don’t repair the computer yourself,” she warned him.

→ She warned him ………………………………………….. .

35. “Don’t let him in,” she said.

→ She told me ………………………………………….. .

36. “Don’t go out without me,” he begged her.

→ He begged her ………………………………………….. .

37. “Don’t forget your bag,” she told me.

→ She told me ………………………………………….. .

38. “Don’t eat in the lab,” the chemistry teacher said.

→ The chemistry teacher told his students ………………………………………….. .

39. “Don’t give yourself up,” he advised her.

→ He advised her ………………………………………….. .

40. “Don’t hurt yourselves, boys,” she said.

→ She told the boys ………………………………………….. .

Bài 2: Bài tập câu tường thuật pha trộn negative và positive

1. She said, “Go upstairs.”

→ She told me ………………………………………….. .

2. “Close the door behind you,” he told me.

→ He told me ………………………………………….. .

3. “Don’t be late,” he advised us.

→ He advised us ………………………………………….. .

4. “Stop staring at me,” she said.

→ She told him ………………………………………….. .

5. “Don’t be angry with me,” he said.

→ He asked her ………………………………………….. .

6. “Leave me alone,” she said.

→ She told me ………………………………………….. .

7. “Don’t drink and drive,” she warned us.

→ She warned us ………………………………………….. .

8. “John, stop smoking,” she said.

→ She told John ………………………………………….. .

9. “Don’t worry about us,” they said.

→ They told her ………………………………………….. .

10. “Meet me at the cinema.” he said.

→ He asked me ………………………………………….. .

11. He said, “I like this song.”

→ He said ………………………………………….. .

12. “Where is your sister?” she asked me.

→ She asked me ………………………………………….. .

13. “I don’t speak Italian,” she said.

→ She said ………………………………………….. .

14. “Say hello to Jim,” they said.

→ They asked me ………………………………………….. .

15. “The film began at seven o’clock,” he said.

→ He said that ………………………………………….. .

16. “Don’t play on the grass, boys,” she said.

→ She told ………………………………………….. .

17. “Where have you spent your money?” she asked him.

→ She asked him ………………………………………….. .

18. “I never make mistakes,” he said.

→ He said ………………………………………….. .

19. “Does she know Robert?” he wanted to know.

→ He wanted ………………………………………….. .

20. “Don’t try this at home,” the stuntman told the audience.

→ The stuntman advised ………………………………………….. .

21. “I was very tired,” she said.

→ She said ………………………………………….. .

22. “Be careful, Ben,” she said.

→ She told ………………………………………….. .

23. “I will get myself a drink,” she says.

→ She said ………………………………………….. .

24. “Why haven’t you phoned me?” he asked me.

→ He wondered ………………………………………….. .

25. “I cannot drive them home,” he said.

→ He said ………………………………………….. .

26. “Peter, do you prefer tea or coffee?” she says.

→ She asked ………………………………………….. .

27. “Where did you spend your holidays last year?” she asked me.

→ She asked ………………………………………….. .

28. He said, “Don’t go too far.”

→ He advised her ………………………………………….. .

29. “Have you been shopping?” he asked us.

→ He wanted ………………………………………….. .

30. “Don’t make so much noise,” he says.

→ He asked ………………………………………….. .

Đáp án

Bài 1:
  1. She asked me where her umbrella was.
  2. Martin asked us how we were.
  3. He asked if he had to do it.
  4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.
  5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.
  6. She wanted to know what they were doing.
  7. He wanted to know if I was going to the cinema.
  8. The teacher wanted to know who spoke English.
  9. She asked me how I knew that.
  10. My friend asked me if Caron had talked to Kevin.
  11. He wanted to know what time it was.
  12. She asked me when we would meet again.
  13. She asked him if he was crazy.
  14. He wanted to know where they had lived.
  15. He asked her if she would be at the party.
  16. She asked me if I could meet her at the station.
  17. The teacher wanted to know who knew the answer.
  18. She wanted to know why he didn’t help her.
  19. He asked me if I had seen that car.
  20. The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
  21. The teacher told Joe to stop talking.
  22. She told him to be patient.
  23. Her father told her to go to her room.
  24. She told us to hurry up.
  25. He asked her to give him the key.
  26. She asked Sam to play it again.
  27. He asked Caron to sit down.
  28. The receptionist asked the guest to fill in the form.
  29. She told us to take off our shoes.
  30. She told him to mind his own business.
  31. She told him not to touch it.
  32. He told me not to do that again.
  33. He told her not to talk to him like that.
  34. She warned him not to repair the computer himself.
  35. She told me not to let him in.
  36. He begged her not to go out without him.
  37. She told me not to forget my bag.
  38. The chemistry teacher told his students not to eat in the class.
  39. He advised her not to give herself up.
  40. She told the boys not to hurt themselves.
Bài 2:
  1. She told me to go upstairs.
  2. He told me to close the door behind me.
  3. He advised us not to be late.
  4. She told him to stop staring at her.
  5. He asked her not to be angry with him.
  6. She told me to leave her alone.
  7. She warned us not to drink and drive.
  8. She told John to stop smoking.
  9. They told her not to worry about them.
  10. He asked me to meet him at the cinema.
  11. He said that he liked that song.
  12. She asked me where my sister was.
  13. She said that she didn’t speak Italian.
  14. They asked me to say hello to Jim.
  15. He said that the film began at seven o’clock.
  16. She told the boys not to play on the grass.
  17. She asked him where he had spent his money.
  18. He said that he never made mistakes.
  19. He wanted to know if she knew Robert.
  20. The stuntman advised the audience not to try that at home.
  21. She said that she had been very tired.
  22. She told Ben to be careful.
  23. She said she would give herself a drink.
  24. He wondered why she hadn’t phoned him.
  25. He said that he could not drive them home.
  26. She asked Peter if he preferred tea or coffee.
  27. She asked me where I had spent my holidays the previous year.
  28. He advised her not to go too far.
  29. He wanted to know if we had been shopping.
  30. He asked us not to make so much noise.

Hi vọng rằng với các kiến thức bổ ích bên trên, các bạn hoàn toàn có thể làm chủ kiến thức về câu câu gián tiếp trong tiếng anh. Chúc các bạn may mắn.

UNI Academy

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